Operation Of The Forex Market
The International Forex Market is a non-physical market and has no central exchange. The major participants in this foreign exchange trading market are Central Banks, prime multinational banks, large corporations, brokerage houses and individual investors. Forex agents offer various services to investors, including financial analysis, information gathering and market situation updates. Most transactions are conducted through online forex trading system.
The high liquidity in the forex market is due to the enormous volume of transactions generated by the primary market called the "interbank market" where banks, large financial institutions, insurance companies and other large corporations deal with each other in huge quantities to manage their own currency risks. The secondary over-the-counter market, where retail clients participate in forex transactions, has benefited from this liquidity provided by the big institutions.
The growth of the average daily volume of Forex trading has been phenomenal and is now currently trading currency to the tune of $4 trillion a day, having grown 400% in the past decade from an already large $1.0 trillion a day in 1992. It reached a high level in 2001 with approximately $2.2 trillion but adjusted back to the current $1.6 trillion by 2003. This was likely due to the birth of the single Euro currency in place of the then existing 12 European currencies.
The largest part of the largest financial market in the world consists overwhelmingly of speculation, in the form of spot forex trades (95%). The remaining 5% consists of companies swapping currencies back to their home currency to repatriate profits, forwards moves, and all other transactions.